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In computer graphics, environment mapping, or reflection mapping, is an efficient image-based lighting technique for approximating the appearance of a reflective surface by means of a precomputed texture image. The texture is used to store the image of the distant environment surrounding the rendered object. Several ways of storing the surrounding environment are employed.
Typical texture sources – Procedure – Tabular data (texture image). 9. Texture Mapping Techniques. 2D texture mapping: paint 2D. pattern onto the surface. Environmental (reflection) mapping. Bump mapping: perturb surface. normals to fool shading algorithms. Procedural texture mapping. 10. Need to Impose Parametrization.
Soil mapping in general requires (i) a predefined model of soil formation, (ii) data on soil properties and on other environmental variables that have significant impact on soil formation and thus on the spatial distribution of the soil properties. In this sense, traditional soil mapping and digital soil mapping do not differ much. Collecting profile data is the most time-consuming and costly part of the surveying procedure. Such data is theoretically unaltered, unprocessed, and thus can be an unbiased input for all type of applications using different processing methods. Soil profile observations are typically the most valuable part of soil survey and they represent the major input into the soil spatial inference system (Fig.
The rollback procedure is quite similar to the percentage rollback procedure - each observation at each monitor in the region has the portion of its value which is above background level reduced by increment. The reduced values are not allowed to become negative, however - that is, they are truncated at zero. BenMAP also calculates an anthropogenic standard by subtracting the Interday Background Level from the Attainment Test standard. Finally, BenMAP calculates a set of anthropogenic metric values and a set of non-anthropogenic metric values using the following procedure on each initial monitor metric value: IF the metric value is less than or equal to the Interday Background Level, non-anthropogenic metric value metric value.
Relevant information from the Environmental Atlas, the Urban and Environmental Information System (ISU), and the already ascertained corrective factors developed from the data of the Berlin Waterworks (BWB data) were incorporated into the classification process. The mapping procedure consists of three evaluation steps: Mapping of impervious built-up areas, Mapping of impervious non-built-up areas, Derivation of the degree of impervious coverage. The mapping of impervious coverage concentrates on block and block segment areas; transportation routes and bodies of water are not considered